From the ancient time Humans allays wonder if we are alone in the universe. In the search of extraterrestrial life we develop several communication methods and also we listen carefully all informations received from outer space.
To help other civilizations discover the Earth, we have used 2 types of data transmission in cosmos.
First method is send hard copy of information using spacecrafts. Most known examples are Voyager 1, and Voyager 2. Their mission was to study the outer Solar System. They are also carrier of time capsule called Golden Records. The Time Capsules contain sounds, images and achievements of Humanity.
This type of information transmission has several disadvantages:
Second and most advanced technology is to transfer data in space by electromagnetic waves. There were several massages, one of the most famous project was Space Call, made in 1999 (Cosmic Call 1) and 2003 (Cosmic Call 2). Radio messages were send from RT-70 in Yevpatoria, Crimea to various nearby stars.
Electromagnetic communication has some restrictions:
1. Electromagnetic waves are easily absorbed and distorted and they lose energy during penetration in the matter.
2. For data transferring through big distances we have to use long wavelength and low frequency. As the result we have limitation in data transfer speed.
3. To transfer information between two object we must have direct view between them.
Alternative communication method is neutrino based communication systems. Neutrinos are elementary particles, which interacts only with weak interaction and gravity. The weak force has a very short range, gravity is extremely weak and neutrinos typically pass through normal matter without interaction and undetected.
In the universe, there are many neutrino sources: active galactic nuclei, stars, gamma ray bursts, supernovae and so on. All of them have their own unique neutrino spectrum signature. We have massive neutrino detector IceCube South Pole Neutrino Observatory, where scientists seek neutrinos from the whole universe. Neutrinos are also created artificially in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. In the FermiLab and CERN focused neutrino beams have been created. Recently FermiLab used neutrino beam to transfer information with the speed of 0.1 bit/sec to the 800 km.
Weak interaction of neutrinos with matter makes it uniquely valuable as astronomical messengers. Sending information with neutrino beams has advantages to the existing technologies:
• Neutrinos can pass through ordinary matter and information can reach remote places of The Universe.
• Information can be transmitted continuously to any direction.
• Neutrinos travel with almost speed of light.
• Focused neutrino beams can be pointed to the desirable direction.
Because of very small cross section, Neutrino packet can cross the whole universe caring information about our civilization and habitats, and reach the most remote places with the speed of light.
There is no doubt that future belongs to Neutrino’s.
SpaceApps is a NASA incubator innovation program.